PhD Theses (Design)

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    Design and Evaluation of User-Centric Gesture-based Selection Techniques for Small Objects of Varying Distances in Dense Virtual Environments of HMD-VR Applications
    (2024) Bhowmick, Shimmila
    Virtual reality (VR) is a computer-generated simulation of a three-dimensional environment that can be interacted with in a seemingly real or physical way through the use of electronic devices, such as head-mounted displays. In VR, users have various options for interacting with the virtual world, such as controllers, gloves, bare-hand gestures, haptic devices, and bodysuits. VR has a multitude of applications, ranging from gaming to healthcare, education and training, and tourism and travels to name a few. Object selection is an essential and crucial task in any of the VR applications because it allows users to identify, interact with and manipulate virtual objects in the virtual environment (VE). In VR, VEs contain objects of varying densities, sizes, and distances from the user. However, selecting small objects placed at varying distances in a dense VE can be challenging, and can lead to inaccurate selection, increased task completion times, and higher levels of fatigue and frustration. Therefore, it is necessary to develop effective object selection techniques that enable accurate and quick selection, particularly for small objects placed at varying distances within dense VE. Our thesis is focused on controller-less object selection techniques. The thesis is based on five primary experiments, with the first two studies being gesture elicitation studies. The initial study focuses on investigating user-centric gestures for selecting small objects within arm's reach and at a distance in a dense VE. The second study concentrates on evaluating user-elicitated gestures for selecting an individual gesture for each VE condition. The gestures were evaluated based on their ease of use, appropriateness, suitability for the gesture's function, preferences, and effort. Thereafter three studies were conducted to evaluate the techniques with existing techniques in the literature. The third study aimed to design and evaluate gesture-based object selection techniques for dense VE where targets are small and placed within arm's reach. We designed a technique called Locked Dwell Time based Point and Tap (LDTPT) and compared it with existing techniques from the literature. The results showed that LDTPT was the most natural and efficient technique for selecting small targets at arm's reach. However, participants found it difficult to use and learn. To address the limitations, in the fourth study, we designed and evaluated a new technique called Tiny hands, which scales down the size of virtual hands to select small targets. Results showed that Tiny hands technique was significantly faster, more accurate, and easy to use, learn, and preferred over other techniques. In the fifth study, we designed and evaluated AMAZE and AMAZE-X techniques (A Multi-finger Approach to Zoom in dense Environments) for the selection of small targets placed at a distance in dense VE. This technique offers zoom using multiple fingers in VR. Results show that these techniques outperform existing techniques in task completion time, accuracy, easy to use, ease of learning, naturalness, preference and effort. Lastly, we are able to present a set of design recommendations that can be used by designers and developers to design efficient and effective gesture-based object selection techniques for small object selection in dense VE where targets are placed within arm’s reach and at a distance.
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    Embodying Conceptual Metaphors in Mainstream Non-linear English Film Narratives An Analytical Study
    (2024) Gokhale, Sheetal Madhav
    This research is primarily concerned with the ways in which the advent of digital technology influenced the design of a film narrative and brought about innovation in the execution of cinematic storytelling in recent popular English language cinema, especially that of Hollywood. The study shows that not only does the ease of technology lead to new approaches to visual storytelling (viz. non-linearity), but that these novel experiments remain comprehensible to a lay audience by transforming our imagination of the world. Without a linear and teleological understanding of narrative time, imaginative engagement and narrative comprehension must depend upon other kinds of commonalities of language and culture such as embodied cognition and cognitive metaphors. This study sought to show that the newer understanding of the world that non-linear cinema seeks to elicit, is not only based upon embodied cognitive metaphors derived from language in filmic content but is executed at the level of design and form by manipulating the filmic container itself to facilitate an alternative understanding. In this respect, the study is located at the juncture of narrative design, digital humanities, digital media studies, and cognitive film theory.
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    Design and Evaluation of User-Centric Gestures for Locomotion in HMD-VR Interfaces for a Seated Position
    (2023) Vinod, Priya
    Virtual Reality (VR) systems offer a means of immersing users within 3D computer-generated virtual environments (VEs) with the aim of creating a natural experience. This thesis explores and investigates body gestures as a medium of interaction in a seated position for locomotion in multitasking VEs. The present research aims to identify and evaluate natural and intuitive gestures for locomotion in a seated position for three different multitasking scenarios This research presents the results of five user studies aimed at developing and evaluating three new controller-less, gesture-based locomotion techniques for multitasking VEs that can be performed while seated. The first study utilized the gesture elicitation method to generate three sets of user-centric gestures for locomotion suitable for different multitasking VEs. The second study evaluated these gestures based on appropriateness, ease of use, effort, and user preference and further classified them based on hand usage and geometric taxonomy. Three new gesture-based techniques, called the Calling gesture, Deictic Pointing gesture, and Mirror- Leaning gesture, was designed and developed for virtual locomotion. Three different comparative studies were conducted to compare these gestures with techniques from the literature, such as tapping and teleportation, and evaluated based on parameters such as task completion time, accuracy, intuitiveness, performance, comfort, ease of use, perceived workload, spatial knowledge, presence, simulation sickness, and user preference.
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    Design, Development and Evaluation of Transfer Assistive Device Using Biomechanics in Human-Machine Environment
    (2024) Mahammed, Kelifa Seid
    This study aims to design a simple, inexpensive, and safe transfer assistive device with a focus on introducing a new research direction in the field of assistive technology devices through a context-driven research approach during concept selection, evaluation and development process. An alternative design methodology was executed and adopted to explore the interaction between the user and the current device and generate integrated human-machine design conceptualization and evaluation strategies. Custom biomechanical assessment methods for human-machine interaction were synthesized to evaluate the device's safety and usability. A working prototype was developed, and an EMG-based experimental validation was conducted on the selected potential participants to examine the functionality of the developed transfer assistive device. The study's main contributions are: an alternative biomechanical loading prediction equation was formulated to determine the compressive loads at the L5/S1 lumbar spine for any load and handle orientations, which would be helpful in the early estimation of musculoskeletal disorders in a similar product. A simple alternative methodology for identifying an optimum handle design and orientation was presented using a human-machine approach based on the EMG data recorded during the experiment, and a new technique was also presented for the effective selection of an optimum actuator load and its location in the context of human-machine design. Additionally, three findings were also obtained from this experiment, which may be useful for ongoing related studies, such as (1) the compressive load at the spine largely depends on posture than the hand load, (2) BR muscles had the highest contribution in the FPT tasks, in contrast AD muscles was shown to have lowest contribution. (3) the formulation of a predictive equation for estimating the spine load that might help in evaluating the handle design in a similar product. Generally, a transfer assistive device employing a precisely selected component was developed that was able to transfer users in a biomechanically accepted transfer posture.
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    Study on Ergonomic and Crew Protective Interventions on Light Armoured Vehicles for Ethiopian Army
    (2022) Mengistu, Amare Wibneh
    Light armored vehicles (LAVs) are multi-purpose type of vehicles. It can be used for reconnaissance activities such as patrolling and scouting activities, transporting and carrying troops, ambulance service, small and large scale combating activities in various army wings, and conflict cessation in streets and institutions of urban or city. From the design perspective, LAVs require maneuverability, survivability, off-road efficiency, and compact size, maintaining the adequacy of the space and comfort. Researchers have conducted various studies regarding its maneuverability, survivability/crew protection, and firing power in a compact interior space of the vehicle. However, ergonomics aspects are often overlooked while space compactness and crew protective aspects are considered. Therefore, the current research aims to investigate the design intervention of the ergonomic and crew protective aspects without affecting the space occupancy and mobility of the Ethiopian LAV to enhance crew comfort and safety.
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    Designing a Knowledge-Based System to Facilitate the Process of Fall Risk Assessment in Construction
    (2023) Vigneshkumar, C
    Fall from height (FFH) accounts for a large number of fatalities and severe injuries in the construction industry worldwide. Several approaches have been proposed by many researchers to enhance the safety performance of construction industry by preventing falls. However, fall incidents continue to impact the construction sector more in developing regions compared to developed countries. This could be achieved through fall risk assessment (RA) method. The entire safety procedures are likely to fail, if RA fails, as this is one of the critical safety processes in construction industry. But, the traditional method of RA fails to identify safety risks involved in construction activities due to lack of experience and time. To address these safety challenges, some researchers recommended to integrate knowledge management (KM) concept into construction safety management. Unfortunately, there has been few studies that attempts to integrate KM into safety in construction. Hence, this study focused on integrating KM into the safety planning to facilitate the process of RA in the Indian construction industry focusing on preventing falls. This research was presented in the context of traditional vertical formwork because the use of formwork in construction frequently involves working at heights and its operations are associated with a high level of falls incidents and injuries across all construction operations.
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    (A) Visual Study on Motifs and Patterns of Ahom’s Brick Monuments
    (2022) Deori, Saurav Khuttiya
    Assam is located in the North-eastern part of India; it is blessed with its rich and diverse culture and heritage. One of the most influential aspects of heritage is the reign of Ahoms in Assam for nearly 600 years (A.D. 1228–1826). Historically, Ahoms are from a group of Tai people and most historians mention that the descendants of Tai people are from Yunnan province. The Ahoms came to Assam by crossing the Patkai Hills on the northern- eastern border of Myanmar. They settled over the Brahmaputra valley and extended their kingdom over the upper and lower part of Assam. With the leadership of the first Ahom King Sukapha (A.D. 1228–1268), they set up their first capital in the Charaideu district of Assam. The initial phase of the Ahom dynasty was unstable as they were expanding the kingdom subjugating the Brahmaputra valley of Assam. By the 17th century, art and architecture flourished prosperously. Literature states that during the reign of Ahom King Rudra Singha (A.D. 1698-1714), the masonry architecture flourished.
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    Frugal Design for Marginal Contexts: Formulating a Systematic Approach and a Design Toolkit
    (2022) Upadhyay, Pankaj
    This thesis examines the subject of ‘Frugal Design for Marginal Contexts’ to forward the scope of product design in marginalised socio-economic scenarios and equip designers with necessary tools. ‘Frugal design’ is defined as a low-resource intensive design process for developing affordable, optimised, performant and holistic products, and ‘Marginal Contexts’ (MC) are defined as social scenarios with poor socio-economic conditions where people lack freedom and capabilities.
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    Design And Development Of DASH: Design Assessment Framework And Tool For Sustainable Housing
    (2023) Piparsania, Kratika
    The idea of sustainability is based on three pillars: environmental, economic, and social, per the Brundtland report. Housing is a type of architecture with which any occupant can connect. It is a place that supports an occupant’s physical, emotional, cultural, and social needs, which support their consciousness. The methodology includes an extensive literature review, data collection, and analysis to understand, achieve, and balance sustainability. The study identified an evident gap in current green building rating systems regarding the inclusion of social and cultural indicators. There is an inclination for quantitative approaches, such as energy, the environment, and resources. The study found that it is viable to identify, recognize, and determine social and cultural indicators that are both tangible and intangible. There is a need to cater to more sustainable housing that is socially and culturally appropriate for the transition to a low-carbon future. In most research regarding the sustainable built environment, participation and feedback are limited to industry experts and professionals, and residents are excluded. This study presents residents' views regarding the incorporation of socio-cultural indicators and the understanding of sustainability. This study focuses on socio-cultural sustainability: incorporating culture as the fourth pillar of sustainability or as an extension of social sustainability. This study attempted to fill this gap by collecting data from Indian residents, thus validating social and cultural indicators according to occupants’ needs. Through a secondary data review and survey research, this study intends to find relevant socio-cultural indicators that are occupation-defined. The context of this study is specific to India and its residents, with a limited set of people involved due to restrictions resulting from COVID-19. This study aims to determine a way to more effectively integrate the physical and intangible aspects of housing for socioculturally focused and sustainable development by establishing a theoretical framework. The developed theoretical framework is further translated into a practical toolkit. The assessment tool is designed and developed in Microsoft Excel. Each section has design guidelines based on sustainable design practices and best practices followed by national standards and codes. The categories of the tool are identified in the framework and are sectioned into various categories and sub-categories. The template is made in a spreadsheet format, and the tool is designed and developed using Microsoft excel. Each sub-category is detailed with specific design guidelines. The guidelines are based on sustainable design practices and best practices followed by national standards and codes. The scoring for the entire sheet and every section is on a scale ranging from "Poor" to "Best Practice" with score values (-1, 0,3,5), which are color-coded. All criteria within each category have been assigned equal weightage (i.e., 3 for good practice) except for innovation which is 1. The score of each section is calculated and reported after every sub-category's data. The final score calculations for the overall category are displayed at the bottom of the worksheet. The last tab, "Result," provides a concise summary of all the data, divided by category and multiple graphical charts. The toolkit covers seven categories of effect, identified as they have the most significant potential to reduce a building's environmental impact and remove the most frequently met problems and barriers in a balanced, sustainable design. The tool is later validated by industry experts who have worked in the development of similar assessment tools. The tool is checked with heuristics principles for user interface testing with the help of participant observation. The tool version V1 is revised based on the feedback received, and further V2 is developed and validated.
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    Design Development of Post-Disaster Transitional Shelter
    (2023) Dev, Kankana Narayan
    Transitional Housing is a crucial intermediate phase in the disaster recovery process, where the affected population resides for a temporary period until they can return to their habitats. The built environment today is affected more and more by rapid and drastic changes due to human-made and natural disasters. Presently, Humanitarian Aid of disaster relief shelters functioning the role of transitional shelters is often in the form of plastic sheets, tents, prefabricated units, and public community buildings such as community centres, schools, hospitals, university halls of residence, places of worship, sports venues, and private rentals. The providence of such facilities is often carried out by the government administrations, NGOs, and Humanitarian Aid Agencies. The term of residence in such facility ranges from days to years, which disrupts the normal functioning of the public institution that is used to house the displaced population, especially schools and colleges. The study begins by studying the impact of disasters and Humanitarian Aid with a focus on Shelter Aid. The definition of transitional accommodation by several aid agencies is analysed with the help of case study of transitional shelters implemented in the aftermath of past disasters. We identified essential characteristics of transitional housing by making a comparative review of different solutions developed in the past in the global context by universities, architects, designers, engineers, manufacturers, NGOs, and governments. The objective of this research is to develop the design guidelines for transitional shelter aftermath of a flood disaster, with a focus to create dignified living conditions which are both environmentally sustainable and economically feasible. The context of the study is the Flood Plains of the Brahmaputra Valley in the North Eastern state of Assam, India which gets flooded annually displacing thousands of people. The residents of the flood-plains and scattered river islands in the form of sandbars of the Brahmaputra basin reside there due to the available fertile land for agricultural activity. Evidence of architectural adaptation in the form of ‘chang ghar’ or houses on stilts is observed in the indigenous tribal houses to address the floods. Most households had personal boats for transportation during floods. A sequential mixed method approach is used in this research. The qualitative phase focused on selected study of three flood-prone settlements in the Brahmaputra Valley. This study documents the rural homesteads lifestyle in the valley by a selective survey of households from three locations which are annually affected by floods. Visual documentation supported by draft measured drawing and user interviews are used to study the homesteads, which are mostly nonengineered. Salient building elements are identified and documented. Structural components, Comfort, Material Technology, Architectural Design, Sanitation and Waste Management are studied in detail to understand the lifestyle of the people and the cultural influences. Further, analysis is made to understand the housing response to the disaster profile of the context. The genre of transportable, flexible and ephemeral architecture is rapidly expanding in the Humanitarian Shelter Aid sector. The research proceeds with the development of a full-scale prototype of a temporary shelter kit model made using the locally abundant material of Bamboo with community participation. The full-scale prototype underwent three iterations until March 2020. The design criteria are determined by the analysis of different aspects that could contribute to the optimization of the final product: life in relief shelter camps, essential qualities of a domestic environment, its spaces and functions, general requirements set by aid organizations and technical strength requirements. Bamboo is considered as a material for construction due to its availability in abundance, a renewable resource, and because many people in the region reside in houses made of Bamboo. From the findings of the design exercise, we realize that Bamboo is the most appropriate material for use in transitional housing across the region of Assam. The structural stability with thermal comfort and privacy contribute to the cultural acceptance of the shelter type. The design development involved the community at every step of its conception to develop ownership over the project and also the construction of the same. However, the storage of the shelter kit of non-treated Bamboo was found to be a challenge. We also explored the option of enterprise development of the shelter kit to establish the delivery of the shelter locally within the community as part of disaster preparedness.
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    Design Heuristics for Furniture Design and Tool for Model Making
    (2023) Das, Supradip
    The furniture industry’s innovation culture is shifting towards democratic design by internalizing the production process. Designers, product developers and engineers work together in a prototyping space to transform a concept into a real product, considering the prototype as the boundary object amongst different domains and stakeholders to foster innovation processes. Given design students’ future endeavours in the aforementioned work environment, prototyping activity is an integral part of design education to improve the immature mental model of novice designers. In contrast, teaching prototypedriven design innovation is not that simple, as it is tacit knowledge. Furthermore, prototype-driven design innovation is difficult for novice designers, as prototyping is the main activity. Simultaneous thinking and making tend to be complex activities for novice designers. This research seeks to develop tools to support novice designers in thinking and model-making, emphasizing furniture design. An extensive literature review on prototyping culture, novice designers’ mental models and requirements for prototyping were used to arrive at the specifications for developing tools. ‘Design heuristics for furniture design’ (DHfFD) as a catalyst for thinking and ‘Tool for Model Making’ (TfMM) as a catalyst for making are two different tools developed in this research. The toolsets have been developed from an analysis of the characteristics of 650 award-winning furniture (chair) designs and published compendium of well-known successful designs and introduced in the form of cards. A total of 86 DHfFD cards and 65 TfMM cards had been developed. This research extends its investigation to analyze the acceptance and effectiveness of the tools with novice design students. Students have enthusiastically accepted it to generate more diverse concepts and models with appropriate materials and processes. This study correlates DHfFD with more alternative concepts and TfMM with the quality of the appearance model in furniture design. This research integrates evidence, methods, and perspectives from cognition and design, correspondingly providing a pedagogical recommendation to use DHfFD and TfMM to overcome prototype-driven design innovation issues in furniture design among novice designers.
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    Life Cycle and Techno-economic Assessments of Porous Radiant Burner and Proposed Organizational Design of the Entity Associated
    (2023) Rani, Shaik Sofia
    In 2005, the United Nations proposed sustainable development goals (SDG) with 17 objectives as a replacement for millennium development goals (MDGs), as MDGs could not be achieved to their fullest capacity. The third SDG which focuses on ‘ensuring healthy lives and promoting well-being for all at all ages, is a broader goal when compared to the MDG, which concentrates only on maternity and child health. A lot is yet to be done to achieve the complete objective of the third SDG before 2030. Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 7 is to ensure the usage of clean cooking fuel to 100% of households by 2030. An effort of developing a Porous Radiant Burner (PRB) at the Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati, India has been made considering these goals. In the present research work, different applications of PRB have been tested for sustainability.
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    Design and Development of a Semi-Automatic Handloom
    (2023) Mahato, Manohar
    Design is considered as creative human activities which focus to improve living for all categories of people. Humans are weaving cloth through handloom and powerloom to fulfill their one of the basic needs in life. Handlooms have a long history beyond the available ancient history. Over the time, handloom improved through many inventions towards making powerloom available today primarily from industrial revolution. Whereas handlooms have many special features over powerloom like making tailor made fabrics for small quantity etc. These features are still fulfilling the special human needs through creative weaving by handloom which are not fulfilled by powerloom. Also, handloom sector is second largest employer after agriculture in India. It shows the number of people involved in the sector and its unique positioning in the textile sector. Exports of these handloom products have a huge opportunity in various countries of the world. Existing handlooms are very inefficient in production and tedious to weave, causes various work related musculoskeletal disorders to the weaver. It is found that very few research work have been carried out to improve directly to the weavers working conditions in compare to number of weaver affected in the handloom sector. In this research work, it has been studied to improve the handloom weaving through design intervention for commercial application useful in handloom cluster with higher productivity in reduced effort.
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    (A) study on customized visual image representation from the target group for social awareness communication (In Indian Context)
    (2023) Das, Bappa
    The thesis is a qualitative attempt to investigate varied information components (emphasizing human image representation) and their layout patterns in social awareness campaign posters from an artist researcher’s understanding of visual communication point of view. Visual communication enriches through presentation in combination of visuals and text, and their varied combinations. Users’ acceptance relevance specifically concerns when a poster is supported by the visuals depict through photographs of human endorsement of a service theme and product for promotion, and thus a poster presentation of a message gets a desired acceptance. In this issue, the present work investigates if the human figures presented in some Government sponsored social awareness (India current context specific) campaign posters are providing a good sense of acceptance by the target users while decoding and accepting the message. An image creates more impact than written words, and we become more dependent upon visual media for coping today’s life of technology domination. The power of a visual image is proven to be essential for emotion creation and influencing our decision of accepting. The thesis key points are: • Celebrity image of an awareness campaign and relevance to local target group. • For national campaign, a single grid framework can be considered when in the cosmopolitan city area, celebrity images and others area bilingual campaign can be made with target group human figure representatives. • The human figure represents may be considered this specific field of expertise that link to the campaign content and context in long run. Further experimentations on a schematic composition for a national awareness campaign, to cater different people including urban and rural diversity, with the same campaign text in varied language and visual images can have a practical clarity where other relevant elements/ components having authoritative and endorsement value may follow the identical position.
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    Identification of most suitable in-vehicle position of mobile-phone as navigation device for minimizing driver distraction: A study on drivers of Mobile Application Based Taxi Services (MABTS)
    (2021) Verma, Indresh Kumar
    With the advancement in technology, most drivers (personal as-well-as hired car) use mobile phones as portable navigation devices for cars. One of the detrimental effects of using mobile phones while driving is the distraction caused to the drivers, commonly referred to as ‘driver distraction.’ Sources of driver distraction can vary significantly; however, the literature review indicates that distracted driving due to mobile phone use has been identified as a significant cause of road accidents. Out of the different issues related to mobile phone use, while driving, the in-vehicle position of the mobile phone could be one of the lesser-explored causes of distraction. Researchers have empirically examined the effect of the positions of car navigation display on eye movement and braking reaction time. Earlier studies related to the placement of in-vehicle displays and infotainment systems showed that positions of displays affect driver distraction and, thereby, driving performance. Hence, following the literature review, it can be concluded that driver-distraction due to the varied positions of the in-vehicle navigational device (like mobile-phone) might impact driving performance and consequently the possibility of road accident. In India, Mobile Application-Based Taxi Services (MABTS) companies like ‘OLA’ and ‘Uber’ are using mobile-phone applications for executing their services. Although mobile phone is a major cause of distraction, its complete elimination is impractical, as it has become an inevitable part of driving, particularly for the drivers of MABTS. It was observed from the field study that mobile-phone used for navigation purpose was generally mounted at different locations on and around the dashboard and steering wheel, as per the driver’s perception of convenience. Neither there is a guideline nor specific locations followed by the MABTS drivers for mounting their mobile phone for navigation purposes. Positioning the in-vehicle mobile phone at an un-optimal location would reduce the driving performance and increase the chances of accidents for the drivers. Hence, there is a need to study the suitability of in-vehicle mobile phone position to ensure the minimum adverse effect on driving performance (lane keeping, error/ lapses, maneuvering) and minimal effort (bio-mechanical, reachability) while operating/ navigating during driving. The study presented in the thesis attempted to find the most preferred/ suitable location for placing the mobile phone, used as a navigation device. The research framework has been presented in five phases.In phase – I, the problem was identified, research questions raised, literature review, followed by research gap identification, aim & objectives were set, and hypothesis formulated. In phase – II, a field study was conducted to identify the extent of MABTS drivers’ involvement/ engagement in distracting tasks and their preference of location for placing the in-vehicle mobile phone used as a navigation device. A semi-structured questionnaire and a few open-ended questions were administered to the drivers. In phase – III, digital human modeling (DHM) based study was conducted using the CATIA-DELMIA software. This study was carried out to identify the head (rotation, flexion/ extension), torso movement, and hand reachability required for easy information access from different in-vehicle mobile phone positions. In phase – IV, an innovative self-adjusting mobile-phone holder was developed, which can be mounted on the hub of the steering wheel by adopting a systematic product development process. During phase – V, an empirical study was carried out on a driving simulator in a laboratory setup. In this study, the drivers’ driving performance was measured using the lane change task (LCT), and visual behavior was measured using the eye-movement recorder. This complete research to understand the distracting effect of mobile phones’ position on the drivers was perhaps the first in the Indian context. The policy-makers/ road-transport authorities can utilize the current research findings for formulating guidelines for efficient and safe use of in-vehicle navigation devices. The MABTS companies can adopt the outcome of the research to develop guidelines and standard operating procedures (SOP) for the in-vehicle placement of navigational devices (e.g., mobile phones) by taxi drivers. Additionally, industrial designers can also use the knowledge to design mobile holders/ spaces integrated within the dashboard, keeping in mind smaller visual angles for safety and usability.
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    Designing Product Forms Inspired by Nature – A Design Science Approach
    (2021) Verma, Shiv Kumar
    Taking inspiration from nature is a very innovative, creative, and novel approach to design products. Over time, one can cite several innovations inspired by nature - from the weapons made by cavemen to the modern day high-speed trains inspired by a kingfisher. Professional from different knowledge domains have developed various methods and tools for drawing inspiration from nature in their line of work and practice. In this research, we examined the literature on methods and processes focusing upon two professional groups for our primary research: the Systematic methods developed by Researchers/Scientists/Engineers that study principles and phenomenon in nature; and the Intuitive methods more often pursued by Designers/Architects/Painters/Artists. The former group often criticizes the latter groups' intuitive methods as being ‘non-scientific’. Motivated by such criticisms, the current research set out to explore if a systematic design research and systematic design practice can be developed for generating nature-inspired product forms. This exploratory research work undertook the study drawing from Nigel Cross taxonomy that suggests that designers can understand underlying creative design processes from a study of Processes, Product and People. Following this framework four studies were undertaken. These were: Study 1: A review study on existing processes and methods currently followed for nature-inspired design Study 2: An analysis of 30 nature-inspired products that were designed by professional design studios from India and abroad. Study 3: A study of the approaches followed by selected 5 international professional designers known for their products that are inspired from nature. Study 4: This was a live experimental class room study conducted with design students to understand the underlying process they have followed when tasked to design a perfume bottle that is inspired by nature. The research followed a mixed method. Insights related to underlying design thinking process were drawn from the four studies. These insights were combined to formulate a framework identifying the key parameters and elements under consideration in the design process. A proposal for a generative tool for nature-inspired product form generation was formulated. It justified our hypotheses that a systematic approach to Product form generation can indeed be formulated.
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    Sustainability-Orienting Design Support for Farm Machinery Design
    (2021) Banerjee, Sharmistha
    This thesis focuses on sustainable agricultural mechanization development for small farms in developing countries. Statistics show that developing countries are dominated by farm holdings less than 2 hectares in size. The sustainability of these farms is crucial for the sustainability of agriculture in these countries. Mechanization of these farms is the need of the day considering the rising cost and shortage of labor. Studies show that mechanization increases farm power availability, cropping intensity, and food grain production while saving time, labor, production costs, post-harvest losses, seeds, and fertilizers. Thus, mechanization offers the possibility of increasing farmers' income. Due to the lack of economies of scale, it is not feasible for these farmers to own agricultural machinery (AM). Their AM needs are also very different from that of large, heavily mechanized farms. Thus, these small farms need the development of AM that can be hired as per need, i.e., a product-service combination offering. Also, the context demands that the said AM-based product-service system offer support infrastructure and product-services (for allied processes) so that the farmers can cost-effectively adopt it. Thus, the context calls for AM and its allied service ecosystem's design as a sustainable PSS. This thesis presents a framework (D-SAM, Design for Sustainable Agricultural Mechanization) and a set of guidelines (G-SAM, Guidelines for Sustainable Agricultural Mechanization) for the sustainability-oriented design of AM along with its associated service ecosystem following an S.PSS design approach. D-SAM helps in strategic analysis, including a sustainability assessment and priority setting, ideation process, design and engineering of the product, service, and system, and the sustainability improvement or worsening assessment of the redesigned SAM offer. G-SAM helps in the sustainability assessment of the existing scenario, sustainability priority setting for the design, and the ideation process. It puts forward three perspectives for assessment and design in front of the designer: 1. S.PSS design; 2. Design for a sustainable agricultural outcome; and 3. Environmentally sustainable product design. G-SAM provides open-ended ideation cues to guide, educate, and inform a designer during the design process. The assessment is conducted using rapid sustainability assessment (RSA) indicators. G-SAM integrates the analysis and design ideation phase in its construct as designers perform analysis and ideation simultaneously.
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    (A) Study on the Perception and Acceptance of Wrist- Worn Wearable Fitness Tracker and Development of Intervention Models for Enhancing the Acceptance and Prolonged Use of the Devices, Ensuring a Healthy Ageing
    (2022) Sarkar, Swati
    There is a significant societal change in the world with the growth in the ageing population. Older adults are likely to accumulate some health sternness with age, often leading to the functional disability with time. Assistive devices are an excellent resource in such cases, but independence is compromised to some extent. However, prevention is better than cure; if disabilities in older age can be prevented, assuring freedom, one can enhance the essence of living irrespective of any generation. With proper maintenance of physical fitness and psychological well-being, it is possible to eradicate the sufferings associated with older age. Also, adequate health care before even hitting the older age ensures healthy ageing. Physical activity has been considered an essential health factor. Monitoring and promoting physical activity in day-to-day life can tremendously improve health outcomes. There is a significant positive effect on physical and cognitive health in people irrespective of age. Studies have revealed that despite the age stereotypes, the benefits of exercise are brilliant even in very old age. Nowadays, young people are pretty conscious about health and fitness, but older adults often do not indulge in physical activity; a more considerable fraction of the more ageing adult population involves them in sedentary lifestyles with the negative stereotype of ageing. However, wearable fitness trackers play a significant role in motivating people to indulge in a healthy lifestyle. With the increase in health awareness among people, the use of fitness devices has significantly increased. Wearable Fitness Technology is an innovative technology that has already established its benchmark in the world market. There are various categories of people intending to avail of this facility. These devices positively motivate users to indulge in fitness regimes and derive health benefits. Also, these devices can provide basic information regarding the vital physiological changes in the body, which might require professional attention. These devices are already motivating the younger users to indulge in fitness regimes and hence derive health benefits; the ageing population is the most challenging group to be encouraged into the fitness regime. Although wearable fitness trackers’ sales are significant, it faces challenges in their sustainable usage. Reports say users tend to abandon wearable devices in less than six months. The market survey of these wearables reveals a gradual increase in their sales. However, the sustainable engagement and adherence to these products diminish with time. With the advancement in Wearable Technology, researchers have received opportunities with a new wave of research. However, most research has focused on establishing these devices' reliability and accuracy; very little research focuses on providing adoption and acceptance interventions. The existing technology acceptance models have been studied and analysed to understand the underlying cause of lack of adherence and unsustainability in their usage. It has been observed that there lie some gaps and missing links in the existing models while studying people’s perception towards the Wearable Fitness Trackers. In order to fill those voids, respective models have been developed which incorporates the micro-determinants that can assist in the development of a modified version of such devices to ensure sustainable engagement towards these devices. This study also includes the design development of the conceptualised model of Wearable Fitness Trackers that may include the exclusiveness within the scope of inclusiveness to ensure the customer engagement that too on a wide range of people.
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    Development of Product Integrated PV (PIPV) Products for Rural Communities of India – An Industrial Design Approach
    (2022) Satpute, Pranav Ashok
    Energy in the form of electricity is a crucial need in the day-to-day life of humans. There are several generation technologies from which electricity is generated and distributed to the different user locations, which majorly happens through the electricity grid. In India, around 69 per cent of the total population stays in villages, and around 300 million people still have no access to basic electricity. Sparsely distributed population, uneven terrain and geographical conditions make it challenging to distribute electricity through the grid to the users residing in villages of India. Hence electrification is still one of the biggest challenges in rural India. Solar photovoltaic energy is the renewable and viable option to address this issue. Product-integrated photovoltaic (PIPV) refers to the products and systems in which the solar panel is integrated into a product's casing or another surface. There is the use of energy generated by PV cells for the energy requirement of the product during its function. Such products directly interact with their user and primarily aim for grid-independent applications, making them ideal for use in rural and remote areas associated with the lack of access to electricity. Industrial design is a strategic problem-solving process that drives innovation, builds business success and leads to a better quality of life through innovative products, systems, services and experiences. It will play an essential role in envisaging the new applications of solar PV energy through PIPV product interventions to fulfil various electricity needs of India's rural population.The research study acts at the intersections of three main pillars; PIPV, Industrial design and the needs of rural communities of India. Considering the phases involved in designing PIPV products to address the various needs of the users from the rural communities of India, the research study is divided into three sub-studies which address the respective research questions to find insights in each phase. Based on the earlier literature, field studies and case studies, the opportunities and critical areas for the Intervention of PIPV products are identified. PIPV Product interventions available in the market, Grassroot innovations and attempts to innovate are identified to map them based on the user needs to be addressed by them. At the same time, the open-ended design Exercise is conducted with industrial designers to understand the interventions conceptualized by them, which are also mapped to identify the addressed user needs. This study identifies the crucial needs of the users to focus on for the PIPV product intervention. In the next phase, the process of design and development of the PIPV product is observed and studied through scenario-based design experiments with industrial designers. The need for an active feedback system and an interface between various stakeholders associated with various phases of PIPV product design is realized. Also, the transition of the PIPV product from its ideation phase to the realization phase is observed. During the entire research, to evaluate the PIPV product with its users from rural areas, the spiderweb evaluation model was adopted and tested to evaluate the PIPV interventions and identify their improvement areas. Based on all the findings, the approach for designing and developing PIPV products in rural India is proposed, which is then validated through the design, development and field testing of PIPV product for agricultural use. Research explores Industrial Design as an intervention area and focuses on PIPV products in the context of Rural India. As there are limited studies that address these three aspects together, the research contributes by generating new knowledge which will help Industrial designers, Design Engineers, and Product executors who are willing to design PIPV products for rural communities in India.
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    Digitizing Assessment of Creative Aptitude: A Human-Centred Design Approach
    (2022) Chaudhuri, Nandita Bhanja
    Assessing creative aptitude is an inherent criterion in entrance examination of Design education. The assessment process of creative aptitude in Design entrance examination starts from two major perspectives- 1) Identifying characteristics of framing questions by Design pedagogues that test students' creative aptitude, 2) Evaluating students’ creative responses (Aburas & Nurunnabi, 2019). Formulating creative question plays a significant role in Design entrance examinations that has the potential to instigate creative responses among students (Constantinou, 2021; Rashid & Qaisar, 2016). Pedagogues remain ever-inquisitive to know whether the questions framed by them are really creative enough to instigate creative responses. During this process of framing questions that triggers creativity in students, pedagogues solely rely on their individual experiences. To ensure least interference of individual biases among Design pedagogues that affects quality of questions while formulating them, this research study has been undertaken to inquire and investigate ways through which an optimized system of support for pedagogues can be designed. To address this situation, a computational design model is proposed that assesses the questions framed by the pedagogues and analyses it to check whether it would instigate creative responses from students. While types of question plays a significant role in instigating creative responses, evaluating these responses is a major challenge. During assessment of these responses novelty is the most important factor Design pedagogues often look out for. It is a significant criteria in synthesizing creative responses (Jagtap, 2019; Liberati et al., 2018; Saaksjarvi & Goncalves, 2018; Sarkar & Chakrabarti, 2011). Assessing novelty in creative responses requires subjective evaluation, which is generally dependent on experts’ knowledge, choice, and persuasion (Ma et al., 2017). Presently in Design entrance examinations of India, evaluation of novelty is conducted by pedagogues possessing expertise in assessing creative skills. During this evaluation process, they are confronted with multiple challenges such as individual stress, evaluation time, etc. which often lead to inconsistencies in the evaluation process and often reduce self-confidence among pedagogues (Gonzalez et al., 2017; Richards et al., 2017). Predominantly, creative responses are subjective and generally evaluated based on pedagogues’ frame of reference, leading to inconsistency of evaluation across different pedagogues. In situations like this, there might be a reduction in trust of students in the evaluation procedure. To mitigate these challenges, multiple computational design models have been proposed in this thesis with an objective to automate the process of evaluating novelty from creative responses exhibited through various patterns of responses such as descriptive, labelled image, and annotated image-based responses. The research investigation reported here focuses on addressing challenges faced by the Design educators community and can be directly related as a contribution from the perspective of Design Praxiology as proposed by (Cross, 1999; Gasparski, 1979). The proposals made in this research work possesses an approach that intends to prepare Design education community specifically Design pedagogues to embrace changes in existing ways of framing creative questions and assessing students’ responses. This study has addressed a Design problem, which is specifically based on addressing human-errors in the process of assessing creative responses. Furthermore, studies involved in this research would save time for evaluation, disseminate faster results, and reduce other logistics such as paper, storage spaces, etc., for education practitioners.