Subject Specific Design and analysis for Fabrication of Human femoral Scaffold

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Tissue engineering (TE) is an emerging field and many researchers are working in applying the principles of engineering and biology to develop tissue substitutes using living cells, biocompatible materials and technology to restore the damaged human tissues. The success of tissue regeneration depends on the technology to generate reliable, fully integrated, complex, three-dimensional and controlled porous structures called scaffolds of the exact shape and size of the replacement for body parts. Factors that could enhance tissue regeneration include such diverse characteristics as pore size, total porosity, pore shape, pore interconnectivity, material surface chemistry, effective permeability and YoungDs modulus of the scaffold material. The internal structure of the scaffold should have channels and interconnected pores to help suitable mechanical and biological environment for cell attachment, cell proliferation, tissue regeneration and nutrient flow. Specifically the YoungDs modulus and porosity of the scaffold significantly influences the tissue regeneration. The external size and shape of the scaffold should also confirm to the replacement for body part specific to a subject for biological and structural acceptability. Advances in non invasive imaging, image based reconstruction, computer aided design (CAD), solid free-form fabrication (SFF), biomaterials and layered manufacturing (LM) will allow this integrated technology to biological modeling, biophysical analysis and simulation, and design and manufacturing of tissue and organ substitutes. Tissue engineered scaffolds particularly for femoral bone have a very wide application owing to the nature and frequency of damage to femur bone in aged people. It is observed that every bone is different and for better biological and mechanical acceptability of scaffolds and reduced time and improved quality of tissue generation, some important properties of the internal structure apart from external geometry should also be customized considering race, body built-up, age, sex and special conditions like osteoporosis etc. In order to mimic the environment (mechanical YoungDs modulus as well as biological structure of the bone) in the scaffold (replacement) it is significant if the subject specific cortical porous geometry is also modeled apart from external geometry for design and analysis for the fabrication of tissue engineered scaffolds. The present work envisages a method for modeling, design and analysis for the fabrication of subject specific geometry as well as controlled porosity femoral bone...
Supervisor: S. K. Dwivedi