Pyrolysis of Biomass of Different Nature in Various Reaction Environment: Fuel, Physicochemical and Qualitative Analysis of Their Products
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Fossil-fuels are heading towards extinction, and their extensive use is deteriorating environmental synchronization. With this there is also an immense need for energy in the forms of heat, electricity and fuels. To overcome all these burning issues, it is time to make up a setback for clean fuels generation. In this regard, ‘lignocellulosic waste biomass’ is one such renewable source which can withstand the responsibility as new generation energy giant. In this dissertation, a rarely researched biomass Delonix Regia has been selected as one of the feedstock for pyrolysis at different temperatures, for catalytic pyrolysis, for hydropyrolysis and as co-feed for its co-pyrolysis along with pinewood saw dust and butyl rubber tube waste individually. This dissertation also considered another rarely researched biomass, Oscillatoria green algae, for its non-catalytic, catalytic and hydropyrolysis. This thesis reports that, with increase in temperature the yield of bio-oil and its calorific value has improved. The catalytic pyrolysis results in upgraded product quality of the bio-oil than non-catalytic pyrolysis bio-oil whilst catalytic hydropyrolysis delivers more phenolic product. This algal biomass is producing good quantity as well as quality bio-oil including constituent elements of popular hydrocarbons such as BTX etc. The fuel quality of two different lignocellulosic biomass materials is tested using one extensively researched biomass. The results of co-feed pyrolysis of Delonix Regia and Pinewood sawdust conveyed to go for co-feed pyrolysis rather than single feed at 1:1 ratio. Also, as the waste is increasing rapidly, there is need of waste valorization, minimization and management. Accordingly, two general solid wastes present in the vicinity of IIT Guwahati campus are chosen i.e., lignocellulosic waste (DR) and butyl rubber tube waste (TW). Both the waste materials delivered best quality bio-oil resulting average HHV of 32.61 MJ/kg. Bio-chars obtained from all the pyrolysis approaches can be activated at higher temperatures such as 600 ℃ to 900 ℃ for further utilization. In addition, advanced characterization techniques are utilized for the qualitative determination of produced bio-oil and biochar along with physico-chemical characteristics. Bio-oil was analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared Radiation (FT-IR) Spectroscopy, Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR). Biochar was characterized by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM), and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Finally, the bio-oil with such enchanting calorific values also contain popular hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, xylene, styrene, phenols (cresol, guaiacol, catechol, Phenol, 2-methoxy etc.) in good amount. Overall, the bio-oils are good to go for direct applications as furnace oil, heating oil, feed for boiler etc. Whereas the bio-char obtained from the aforementioned experiments possesses fuel properties, fertilizer quality and can be used in separation technology if activated. The non-condensable gases from these system has good syngas amount which can be used to make self-sustainable setup for energy utilization and production with the help of initial external heat energy. Thus, the objectives of the study are successfully completed and directed towards actual production of biofuels by utilization of waste biomass.
Supervisor: Nanda Kishore